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SKYCAD

This library handles everything related to 2D & 3D geometry, such as:

Plane

A plane can be used to place a sketch in the world or for different 3D operations.

How To Create A Plane

const plane = SKYCAD.Plane(nX, nY, nZ, offset)

Here, nX , nY and nZ are the coordinates of the normal vector n and offset the distance from the origin.

Reference Plane

Things To Consider

  • A plane is not visible in the world
  • A plane has its own local coordinate system X'Y'Z'
  • n does not need to be a unit vector
  • offset handles negative values
  • θ is defined from the xy-projection of the plane towards the negative y-axis

Uses

  • 3D operations:
model.addExtrude(sketch, plane, extrudeLength)
  • Projections 2D:
const sketch = model.generateProjection(plane).visible

Trigonometry: Offset, Θ And Φ

Being n the normal vector as plane.n :

const offset = plane.offset
const theta = SKYCAD.computeAngleTheta(n)
const phi = SKYCAD.computePhiAngle(n)

Examples

Plane

Sketch

2D Sketches is a very important part of parametric CAD. Below we have listed the basics.

How To Create A Sketch

By Moving The Marker

const myTriangleSketch = new SKYCAD.Sketch()
myTriangleSketch.moveTo(0, 0)
myTriangleSketch.lineTo(100, 0)
myTriangleSketch.curveTo(100, 50, { clockwise: true })
myTriangleSketch.lineToId(0)

lineToId(0) ensures a closed path by going to the node 0 with a line. Useful to avoid possible bugs in 3D geometries. Same applies for curveToId(0).

All curves are counter-clockwise defined by default (clockwise: false).

By Node Reference

const myTriangleSketch = new SKYCAD.Sketch()
const n0 = myTriangleSketch.addNode(0, 0)
const n1 = myTriangleSketch.addNode(100, 0)
const n2 = myTriangleSketch.addNode(100, 50)

myTriangleSketch.addLine(n0, n1)
myTriangleSketch.addCurve(n1, n2)
myTriangleSketch.addLine(n2, n0)

Geometric Transformations

sketch.translate(5, 5) // 2D translation as (X, Y)
sketch.rotate(Math.PI / 4) // [rad], rotation around the origin (0, 0) of the sketch
sketch.scale(10) // scales the skech from its center, negative values are also accepted
const clonedSketch = sketch.clone() // creates a copy

Rotation & translation are cumulative operations. If you write sketch.translate(1, 3) and after sketch.translate(-5, 10), this will result in sketch.translate(-4, 13). Same applies for rotation.

Chamfer & Fillet

const sketch = new SKYCAD.Sketch()
const n0 = sketch.addNode(0, 0)
const n1 = sketch.addNode(100, 0)
const n2 = sketch.addNode(50, 100)

sketch.addLine(n0, n1)
sketch.addLine(n1, n2)
sketch.addLine(n2, n0)

const size = 10
sketch.addChamfer(size, n0)
sketch.addFillet(size, n1)

Fillets and chamfers are easiest when applied last

Offset Sketch

An offset sketch can be created from another by generating shapes. As an example:

const shape = exampleSketch.generateShapes()[0]
const offsettedShape = SKYCAD.generateShapesWithOffset(shape, offset)[0]
const offsettedSketch = offsettedShape.generateSketch()

Sketch From Bounds

const sketch = SKYCAD.generateSketchFromBounds(bounds2D) // generates a rectangular sketch from SKYCAD.Bounds2D

Boolean Operations

Boolean operations can be done between sketches. Create a new sketch as a result of a boolean operation as:

const unionSketch = SKYCAD.generateSketchUnion(sketchA, sketchB)
const subtractionSketch = SKYCAD.generateSketchSubtraction(sketchA, sketchB)
const intersectionSketch = SKYCAD.generateSketchIntersection(sketchA, sketchB)

Example

Boolean Operations

If you want to merge two different sketches into a single one, regardless of their interaction, you should do sketchA.mergeSketch(sketchB) instead.

isSketch

const isItemSketch = SKYCAD.isSketch(item) // returns true if item is a SKYCAD.Sketch

Layout

Layouts are used to compose 2D content to be displayed in the application or in drawings.

Example

A layout with a sketch, dimension and text element: A layout with a sketch, dimension and text element

const layout = new SKYCAD.Layout()

const squareSketch = SKYCAD.generateRectangleSketch(0, 0, 300, 300)
layout.addSketch(squareSketch)

const startNode = new SKYMATH.Vector2D(0, 300)
const endNode = new SKYMATH.Vector2D(300, 300)
layout.addDimension(startNode, endNode, { decimals: 0, offset: 40 })

layout.addText('DynaMaker', { align: 'center', position: new SKYMATH.Vector2D(150, 150), size: 20 })

How To Create A Layout

const layout = new SKYCAD.Layout({
width?: number, // default: 1000
height?: number, // default: 1000
margin?: number, // default: 0
})

When creating a layout you have the optional arguments to define its width, height and margin, which are useful when working with anchor positions.

Content

The following content types can be added to a layout:

Sketches

layout.addSketch(sketch)
layout.addSketch(sketch: SKYCAD.Sketch, args?: {
anchor?: string, // default: ''
ignoreMargins?: boolean, // default:
position?: SKYMATH.Vector2D, // default:
rotation?: number, // default: 0
scale?: number, // default: 1
}): void

Dimensions

const p1 = new SKYMATH.Vector2D(0, 0)
const p2 = new SKYMATH.Vector2D(1000, 0)
layout.addDimension(p1, p2)
layout.addDimension(startPos: SKYMATH.Vector2D, endPos: SKYMATH.Vector2D, args?: {
decimals?: number, // default:
offset?: number, // default:
textSize?: number, // default:
textRotation?: number, // default: 0
}): void

Text

layout.addText('DynaMaker')
layout.addText(text: string, args?: {
align?: string, // default: 'left'
anchor?: string, // default: ''
ignoreMargins?: boolean, // default:
position?: SKYMATH.Vector2D, // default:
rotation?: number, // default: 0
size?: number, // default: 1
}): void

Images

const img = document.createElement('img')
img.src = '...' // url to img
layout.addImage(img)
layout.addImage(image: HTMLImageElement, args?: {
anchor?: string, // default: ''
ignoreMargins?: boolean, // default:
position?: SKYMATH.Vector2D, // default:
rotation?: number, // default: 0
scale?: number, // default: 1
}): void

Layouts

layout.addLayout(otherLayout)
layout.addLayout(layout: SKYCAD.Layout, args?: {
anchor?: string, // default: ''
ignoreMargins?: boolean, // default:
position?: SKYMATH.Vector2D, // default:
rotation?: number, // default: 0
}): void

Content Geometric Transformations

layout.rotateContent(Math.PI / 4) // [rad], rotation around the origin (0, 0) of the sketch
layout.scaleContent(4) // scales the content, negative values are also accepted
layout.translateContent(5, -3) // 2D translation of content as (X,Y)
const clonedLayout = layout.clone() // creates a copy

Anchor Positions

Anchor positions allows easy positioning of elements within a layout without knowing the exact coordinates, taking into account the size of the elements and the margins of the layout. These are:

  • bottom-left
  • bottom-right
  • center
  • top-left
  • top-right

Example

A layout with five sketches (squares) placed with anchor positions.

Layout Anchors

Code to generate the outer border and the squares in the picture above:

const layout = new SKYCAD.Layout({ width: 600, height: 300, margin: 20 })

// Draw the border
const size = layout.getSize()
const borderSketch = SKYCAD.generateRectangleSketch(0, 0, size.x, size.y)
layout.addSketch(borderSketch)

// Adding the squares
const square = SKYCAD.generateRectangleSketch(0, 0, 50, 50)
layout.addSketch(square, { anchor: 'bottom-left'})
layout.addSketch(square, { anchor: 'bottom-right', ignoreMargins: true})
layout.addSketch(square, { anchor: 'center'})
layout.addSketch(square, { anchor: 'top-left'})
layout.addSketch(square, { anchor: 'top-right' })

Notice that on the bottom-right one we have set ignoreMargins: true to ignore the margin.

Custom Anchor Position

Custom anchors can be added to a layout by defining a unique id and a position.

layout.addAnchor(id: string, position: SKYMATH.Vector2D): void

Size

const size = layout.getSize() // bounds = { x: number, y: number }
const height = layout.getHeight()
const width = layout.getWidth()

Margins

const margins = getMargins () // margins = { top: number, bottom: number, left: number, right: number }
setMargins ( { top: 5, bottom: 1, left: 0, right: 0 } )

isLayout

const isItemLayout = SKYCAD.isLayout(item) // returns true if item is a SKYCAD.Layout

Bounds

We defined the bounds as an object containing the position of two corners.

How To Create Bounds

const bounds2D = new SKYCAD.Bounds2D({
min: new SKYMATH.Vector2D(1, 3),
max: new SKYMATH.Vector2D(10, -7)
})

const bounds3D = new SKYCAD.Bounds3D({
min: new SKYMATH.Vector3D(1, 3, -5),
max: new SKYMATH.Vector3D(10, -7, 8)
})

Get Bounds

const sketchBounds2D = sketch.getBounds()
const layoutContentBounds2D = layout.getContentBounds()
const modelBounds3D = model.getBounds()
const geometryBounds3D = geometryGroup.getBounds()

Bounds

Geometric Transformations

const clonedBounds = bounds.clone() // creates a copy
bounds.translate(exampleVector) // translation as new SKYMATH.Vector2D(X, Y)
bounds.offset(10) // extends the bounds 10 mm from the center

Other

const size = bounds.getSize() // gives the width (x) and height (y) as: { x: number, y: number }
const centerPosition = bounds.getCenter() // gives the center position
const mergedBounds2D = SKYCAD.mergeBounds2D([bounds2D_A, bounds2D_B, ...]) // merges all 2D bounds into a single SKYCAD.Bounds2D
const mergedBounds3D = SKYCAD.mergeBounds3D([bounds3D_A, bounds3D_B, ...]) // merges all 3 bounds into a single SKYCAD.Bounds3D
const mergedBounds2D = SKYCAD.mergeBounds2D([bounds2D_A, bounds2D_B, ...]) // merges all 2D bounds into a single SKYCAD.Bounds2D
const mergedBounds3D = SKYCAD.mergeBounds3D([bounds3D_A, bounds3D_B, ...]) // merges all 3 bounds into a single SKYCAD.Bounds3D

Collision Detection Booleans

const isPositionInsideBounds = bounds.checkPositionInside(position)
const isBoundsAInsideBoundsB = boundsA.isFullyInsideBounds(boundsB)
const isOverlapping = boundsA.isOverlappingBounds(boundsB, { treatTangencyAsOverlap: true })

Collision detection

For the second case of isOverlappingBounds() , the result depends on treatTangencyAsOverlap , which is set to true by default.

Table

Tables are great for displaying organized data, such as BOM-lists or headers for your drawings.
A table can contain text, images and sketches and any cell can span any number of rows and columns.

Example

Table Example

const table = new SKYCAD.Table({ defaultTextSize: 10, width: 400 })

table.addText('1', 0, 1)
table.addText('2', 0, 2)
table.addText('3', 0, 3)

table.addText('Row 1: Left', 1, 0, { align: 'left' })
table.addText('Row 2: Center', 2, 0)
table.addText('Row 3: Right', 3, 0, { align: 'right' })

table.addText('1x2', 1, 1, { colspan: 2, label: 'Cell Label 1' })
table.addText('2x2', 2, 1, { colspan: 2, rowspan: 2, label: 'Cell Label 2' })

table.addSketch(SKYCAD.generateCircleSketch(5, 5, 10), 0, 0)

const img = document.createElement('img')
img.src = 'https://avatars3.githubusercontent.com/u/24880879'
table.addImage(img, 1, 3, { rowspan: 3 })

const tableLayout = table.generateLayout()

Notice that the table is converted to a layout with table.generateLayout(), so it can be added later to other layouts or drawings.

How To Create A Table

Create a table as:

const table = new SKYCAD.Table({
defaultTextSize: number, // default: 10
width: number, // default: 512
})

A table can be converted into a sketch by using const layout = table.generateLayout().

The cell size is defined dynamically with its content. The rows and columns of a table will always stretch to fill the full width of the table.

Content

Content is added into a specific row and column. Supported content types are text, images and sketches.

Table coordinates are 0 indexed. (0, 1) corresponds to first row and second column

Text

// adding 'some text' to the second cell on the first row
table.addText('some text', 0, 0)
table.addText(text: string, row: number, column: number, {
label?: string, // default: ''
colspan?: number, // default: 1, nr of columns to cover
rowspan?: number, // default: 1, nr of rows to cover
align?: string, // default: 'left', ['left', 'center', 'right']
}): void

Sketches

  // adding a sketch to the second cell on the first row
table.addSketch(sketch, 0, 0)
table.addSketch(sketch: SKYCAD.Sketch, row: number, column: number, {
label?: string, // default: ''
colspan?: number, // default: 1, nr of columns to cover
rowspan?: number, // default: 1, nr of rows to cover
}): void

Images

const img = document.createElement('img')
img.src = 'https://avatars3.githubusercontent.com/u/24880879?s=200&v=4'
table.addImage(image: HTMLImageElement, 0, 0)
table.addImage(img: string, row: number, column: number, {
label?: string, // default: ''
colspan?: number, // default: 1, nr of columns to cover
rowspan?: number, // default: 1, nr of rows to cover
}): void

isTable

const isItemTable = SKYCAD.isTable(item) // returns true if item is a SKYCAD.Table

Parametric Model

A parametric model is a pure 3D representation, without any information about its material or position. Create a model as:

const model = new SKYCAD.ParametricModel()

CAD Features

In DynaMaker there are 6 CAD features available

Extrusion

model.addExtrude(sketch, refPlane, extrusionLength)

Cut

model.addExtrudeCut(sketch, refPlane, extrusionCutLength)

Revolve

model.addRevolve(sketch, refPlane, {
axisDirection: new SKYMATH.Vector2D(0, -1),
revolveAngle: 235 * Math.PI / 180
})

The following examples use the same sketch and reference plane:

const model = new SKYCAD.ParametricModel()
const sketch = SKYCAD.generateLogo()
const refPlane = new SKYCAD.Plane(1, 0, 0, 0)

cad-features

Union

cubeModel.union(sphereModel) // adds sphere to cube, modifying cubeModel

Subtract

cubeModel.subtract(sphereModel) // removes sphere from cube, modifying cubeModel

Split

const model = new SKYCAD.ParametricModel()
const sketch = SKYCAD.generateLogo()
const extrusionPlane = new SKYCAD.Plane(1, 0, 0, 0)
model.addExtrude(sketch, extrusionPlane, 100)

const splitPlane = new SKYCAD.Plane(1.5, 0, -1, 25)
model.addSplit(splitPlane, { keepInside: false, keepOutside: true })

cad-features-split

Inside and Outside is defined according to the direction of the normal of splitPlane.

Mesh Model

A mesh model is a collection of vertices, edges and faces that defines the shape of a polyhedral object of an imported file (e.g. stl).

Like a parametric model it lacks the information about its material or position. However, a mesh model also lacks bounds when imported. You can add them when creating the mesh model if you know them or use an open source stl viewer to retrieve them automatically.

const meshModel = new SKYCAD.MeshModel(ASSETS.URLS.MY_STL, {
bounds: new SKYCAD.Bounds3D(
new SKYMATH.Vector3D(0, 0, 0),
new SKYMATH.Vector3D(50, 20, 100),
)
})

Having bounds in a mesh model is useful when updating the camera, for collision detection with other existing models, selection handling and more.

Example - Bike Wheel

Here is a complete example that uses mesh models, together with materials and a container for the models called geometry group.

// Rim component geometry
generateGeometry() {
const geometryGroup = new SKYCAD.GeometryGroup()
const model = new SKYCAD.MeshModel(ASSESTS.URLS.RIM_STL)
geometryGroup.addGeometry(model, { materials: [new SKYCAD.Material({ color: 0x333333 })] })
return geometryGroup
}
// Tyre component geometry
generateGeometry() {
const geometryGroup = new SKYCAD.GeometryGroup()
const model = new SKYCAD.MeshModel(ASSESTS.URLS.TYRE_STL)
geometryGroup.addGeometry(model, { materials: [new SKYCAD.Material({ color: 0xfbfbf0 })] })
return geometryGroup
}
// Wheel component
export class WheelComponent {
private componentHandler = new STUDIO.ComponentHandler()

constructor() {
this.componentHandler = new STUDIO.ComponentHandler()
this.componentHandler.add(new RIM.Component())
this.componentHandler.add(new TYRE.Component())
}

generateGeometry() {
const geometryGroup = this.componentHandler.generateAllGeometry()
return geometryGroup
}
}

Instead of creating a mesh model like const rimModel = new SKYCAD.MeshModel(ASSESTS.URLS.RIM_STL), you can also create a static model directly like const rimModel = ASSESTS.STATIC_MODELS.RIM_STL. The difference between both is that a static model includes the 3D bounds (useful eg. for collision detection or camera centering), whereas a mesh model lacks this information and therefore must be defined in its definition as seen before. You can read more in this how-to example to see how to create static models efficiently.

Connector

A 3D connector is a point in the world with its own coordinate system. It can be defined by the position and rotation vectors.

const myConnector = new SKYCAD.Connector3D({
position: new SKYMATH.Vector3D(50, 100, 0),
rotation: new SKYMATH.Vector3D(Math.PI / 2, Math.PI / 4, 0),
})

Connectors can be used in different ways. However, check their most common use in this how-to example with a robotic arm.

Color

In DynaMaker it is possible to work with different color systems:

Hexadecimal

JavaScript/TypesSript can already handle hexadecimals colors, so does DynaMaker.

Create a hexadecimal color by just adding 0x before the 6 digits/letters that define the color.

const hexColor = 0xFFFFFF

If you try to console.log() white as 0xFFFFFF and you will see that it automatically returns the decimal color 16777215. Also, notice that 0xFFFFFF === 16777215 returns true so both definitions (hexadecimal and decimal) can be used interchangeably without any problem. See other examples here.

You can convert a hexadecimal color to RGB (and use other functions) with:

const rgbColor = SKYCAD.parseColor(0xffffff) // returns SKYCAD.RgbColor

RGB

Create a RGB color with values from 0 to 255, with alpha to represent its opacity (from 0 to 1) as:

const rgbColor = new SKYCAD.RgbColor(0, 125, 255, { alpha: 0.2 }) // light blue
const clonedRgbColor = rgbColor.clone() // creates a copy
const isSameRgbColor = rgbColorA.equals(rgbColorB) // returns true if rgbColorA is rgbColorB, ignoring alpha
const alpha = rgbColor.getAlpha() // gets the value of alpha
const rgbArray = rgbColor.toRgbArray() // returns list of values from 0 to 255 as [R, G, B]
const cmykArray = rgbColor.toCmykArray() // returns list of values from 0 to 100 as [C, M, Y, K]
const hexadecimalColor = rgbColor.toRgbNumber() // returns a hexadecimal color
const hexadecimalColorString = rgbColor.toHexString() // returns a hexadecimal color as string with # before the 6 digits/letters (eg. '#FFFFFF')
const isItemRgbColor = SKYCAD.isRgbColor(item) // returns true if item is SKYCAD.RgbColor

CMYK

Create a CMYK color with values from 0 to 100, with alpha to represent its opacity (from 0 to 1) as:

const cmykColor = new SKYCAD.CmykColor(100, 50, 0, 0, { alpha: 0.3 }) // light blue
const clonedCmykColor = cmykColor.clone() // creates a copy
const isSameCmykColor = cmykColorA.equals(cmykColorB) // returns true if cmykColorA is cmykColorB, ignoring alpha
const alpha = cmykColor.getAlpha() // gets the value of alpha
const cmykArray = cmykColor.toCmykArray() // returns list of values from 0 to 100 as [C, M, Y, K]
const hexadecimalColor = cmykColor.toRgbNumber() // returns a hexadecimal color
const hexadecimalColorString = cmykColor.toHexString() // returns a hexadecimal color as string with # before the 6 digits/letters (eg. '#FFFFFF')
const isItemCmykColor = SKYCAD.isCmykColor(item) // returns true if item is SKYCAD.CmykColor

RAL

In DynaMaker RAL colors (used mainly in the industry for varnish, powder coating and plastics) are treated as numbers as well. Since it is a color system difficult to produce, RAL colors in websites are close representations of their true color.

The main use of RAL colors In DynaMaker is in the RAL color parameter, which always operates in RAL colors (ie. input and output as 4 digits). For example the RAL color Yellow orange can be represented as 2000.

Any other purpose, like color in sketches, models, etc, needs to follow the other mentioned color systems.

Material

Materials are added to models when added to the geometry groups. Create a material, which needs the color in hexadecimal, as:

const materials = [ new SKYCAD.Material({ color: 0x445464, opacity: 0.3 }) ]

Textures can be also added together with the material. See the how-to example.

Geometry Group

Whenever you have multiple models that belong together, e.g. a door blade and its door handle, you can put them in the same GeometryGroup. You can then position, rotate and scale the group as one unit without having to fiddle with its internal structure.

const doorGeometryGroup = new SKYCAD.GeometryGroup()
doorGeometryGroup.addGeometry(doorBladeModel, {
position: new SKYMATH.Vector3D(-100, 100, 0),
rotation: new SKYMATH.Vector3D(Math.PI / 2, 0, 0),
materials: [ new SKYCAD.Material({ color: 0x445464, opacity: 0.3 }) ]
scale: 1
})
doorGeometryGroup.addGeometry(doorHandleModel, {
position: new SKYMATH.Vector3D(0, 100, 0),
materials: [ new SKYCAD.Material({ color: 0x25ADF3, opacity: 0 }) ]
})

Changing the position of geometry makes all its members follow the new position. This is ideal if you want to move subgroups of geometries. Eg. doorGeometryGroup, containing the door blade and handle models, could be within houseGeometryGroup.

2D Projections

2D projections are created via geometry. Given a plane, create a projection as:

const componentGeometry = component.generateGeometry()
const projection = componentGeometry.generateProjection(refPlane)
// projection: { visible: SKYCAD.Sketch(), hidden: SKYCAD.Sketch() }

It returns an object with two items:

  • visible : a sketch with all the visible lines from that plane.
  • hidden : a sketch with all the hidden lines from that plane.

Notice that a geometry is required. If you have a lot of models in your geometry, it might be worth considering to create a sketch for each one to significantly improve performance. This is especially relevant if you are generating or updating the projection dynamically with a parameter or similar.

Tags

Track the geometry group easier by using tags.

geometryGroup.addTag('door') // tags the geometry with the string 'door'
const hasDoorTag = geometryGroup.hasTag('door') // returns true if geometryGroup has the given tag 'door'
const tags = geometryGroup.getTags() // returns a list of the tags as strings

Geometric Transformations

const scale = geometryGroup.getScale() // gets scale as number
const position = geometryGroup.getPosition() // gets position as SKYMATH.Vector3D
const rotation = geometryGroup.getRotation() // gets rotation as SKYMATH.Vector3D
geometryGroup.setPosition(new SKYMATH.Vector3D(1, 10, -7))
geometryGroup.setRotation(new SKYMATH.Vector3D(0, 0, Math.PI / 2))
geometryGroup.setScale(0.7)

Other

const clonedGeometryGroup = geometryGroup.clone() // creates a copy
const isGeometryEmpty = geometryGroup.isEmpty() // returns true if no models/geometry was added with addGeometry()
const geometries = geometryGroup.getGeometry() // returns a list of geometries and models added